Data Lab: Manipulating Bits solution

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The purpose of this assignment is to become more familiar with bit-level representations of integers and floating point numbers. You’ll do this by solving a series of programming “puzzles.” Many of these puzzles are quite artificial, but you’ll find yourself thinking much more about bits in working your way through them. 2 Logistics This is an individual project. While this assignment has its own server at ⁀, final submission must be electronic via the Canvas system. In addition, see below for a ”Beat the Prof” contest. Submissions to the contest and the assignment server are not a substitute for submissions via Canvas. Clarifications and corrections will be posted on the course Canvas site. 3 Handout Instructions Start by creating a directory on your virtual machine to hold this assignment. Then download the file datalab-handout.tar from Canvas to this directory. Then give the command unix> tar xvf datalab-handout.tar This will cause a number of files to be unpacked in the directory. The only file you will be modifying and turning in is bits.c. Before you start: Insert your name and your WPI username in a comment at the top of the bits.c file. The penalty for failing to include your name on any file of any submission in this course is five points per file. It does not count to include your name and/or username as part of the name of a file or folder (although you may be required to also do this), because files can easily become detached from their names. 1 The bits.c file contains a skeleton for each of the 15 programming puzzles. Your assignment is to complete each function skeleton using only straightline code for the integer puzzles (i.e., no loops or conditionals) and a limited number of C arithmetic and logical operators. Specifically, you are only allowed to use the following eight operators: ! ˜ & ˆ | + << >> A few of the functions further restrict this list. Also, you are not allowed to use any constants longer than 8 bits. See the comments in bits.c for detailed rules and a discussion of the desired coding style. 4 The Puzzles This section describes the puzzles that you will be solving in bits.c. 4.1 Bit Manipulations Table 1 describes a set of functions that manipulate and test sets of bits. The “Rating” field gives the difficulty rating (the number of points) for the puzzle, and the “Max ops” field gives the maximum number of operators you are allowed to use to implement each function. See the comments in bits.c for more details on the desired behavior of the functions. You may also refer to the test functions in tests.c. These are used as reference functions to express the correct behavior of your functions, although they don’t satisfy the coding rules for your functions. Name Description Rating Max Ops bitAnd(x,y) x & y using only | and ˜ 1 8 getByte(x,n) Get byte n from x. 2 6 logicalShift(x,n) Shift right logical. 3 20 bitCount(x) Count the number of 1’s in x. 4 40 bang(x) Compute !n without using ! operator. 4 12 Table 1: Bit-Level Manipulation Functions. 4.2 Two’s Complement Arithmetic Table 2 describes a set of functions that make use of the two’s complement representation of integers. Again, refer to the comments in bits.c and the reference versions in tests.c for more information. 4.3 Floating-Point Operations For this part of the assignment, you will implement some common single-precision floating-point operations. In this section, you are allowed to use standard control structures (conditionals, loops), and you may 2 Name Description Rating Max Ops tmin() Most negative two’s complement integer 1 4 fitsBits(x,n) Does x fit in n bits? 2 15 divpwr2(x,n) Compute x/2 n 2 15 negate(x) -x without negation 2 5 isPositive(x) x > 0? 3 8 isLessOrEqual(x,y) x <= y? 3 24 ilog2(x) Compute ⌊log2 (x)⌋ 4 90 Table 2: Arithmetic Functions use both int and unsigned data types, including arbitrary unsigned and integer constants. You may not use any unions, structs, or arrays. Most significantly, you may not use any floating point data types, operations, or constants. Instead, any floating-point operand will be passed to the function as having type unsigned, and any returned floating-point value will be of type unsigned. Your code should perform the bit manipulations that implement the specified floating point operations. Table 3 describes a set of functions that operate on the bit-level representations of floating-point numbers. Refer to the comments in bits.c and the reference versions in tests.c for more information. Name Description Rating Max Ops float_neg(uf) Compute -f 2 10 float_i2f(x) Compute (float) x 4 30 float_twice(uf) Computer 2*f 4 30 Table 3: Floating-Point Functions. Value f is the floating-point number having the same bit representation as the unsigned integer uf. Functions float_neg and float_twice must handle the full range of possible argument values, including not-a-number (NaN) and infinity. The IEEE standard does not specify precisely how to handle NaN’s, and the IA32 behavior is a bit obscure. We will follow a convention that for any function returning a NaN value, it will return the one with bit representation 0x7FC00000. The included program fshow helps you understand the structure of floating point numbers. To compile fshow, switch to the handout directory and type: unix> make You can use fshow to see what an arbitrary pattern represents as a floating-point number: unix> ./fshow 2080374784 Floating point value 2.658455992e+36 Bit Representation 0x7c000000, sign = 0, exponent = f8, fraction = 000000 Normalized. 1.0000000000 X 2ˆ(121) 3 You can also give fshow hexadecimal and floating point values, and it will decipher their bit structure. 5 Evaluation Your score will be computed out of a maximum of 76 points based on the following distribution: 41 Correctness points. 30 Performance points. 5 Style points. Correctness points. The 15 puzzles you must solve have been given a difficulty rating between 1 and 4, such that their weighted sum totals to 41. We will evaluate your functions using the btest program, which is described in the next section. You will get full credit for a puzzle if it passes all of the tests performed by btest, and no credit otherwise. Performance points. Our main concern at this point in the course is that you can get the right answer. However, we want to instill in you a sense of keeping things as short and simple as you can. Furthermore, some of the puzzles can be solved by brute force, but we want you to be more clever. Thus, for each function we’ve established a maximum number of operators that you are allowed to use for each function. This limit is very generous and is designed only to catch egregiously inefficient solutions. You will receive two points for each correct function that satisfies the operator limit. Style points. Finally, we’ve reserved 5 points for a subjective evaluation of the style of your solutions and your commenting. Your solutions should be as clean and straightforward as possible. Your comments should be informative, but they need not be extensive. 6 Autograding your work We have included some autograding tools in the handout directory — btest, dlc, and — to help you check the correctness of your work. • btest: This program checks the functional correctness of the functions in bits.c. To build and use it, type the following two commands: unix> make unix> ./btest Notice that you must rebuild btest each time you modify your bits.c file. You’ll find it helpful to work through the functions one at a time, testing each one as you go. You can use the -f flag to instruct btest to test only a single function: unix> ./btest -f bitAnd 4 You can feed it specific function arguments using the option flags -1, -2, and -3: unix> ./btest -f bitAnd -1 7 -2 0xf Check the file README for documentation on running the btest program. • dlc: This is a modified version of an ANSI C compiler from the MIT CILK group that you can use to check for compliance with the coding rules for each puzzle. The typical usage is: unix> ./dlc bits.c The program runs silently unless it detects a problem, such as an illegal operator, too many operators, or non-straightline code in the integer puzzles. Running with the -e switch: unix> ./dlc -e bits.c causes dlc to print counts of the number of operators used by each function. Type ./dlc -help for a list of command line options. • This is a driver program that uses btest and dlc to compute the correctness and performance points for your solution. It takes no arguments: unix> ./ Your instructors will use to evaluate your solution. 7 Submission Instructions Please copy your bits.c file to a file named -bits.c, where is your WPI username. For example, if your WPI email address is, your file name must be wsmith2-bits.c It is essential that you duplicate your file and give the copy this new name as instructed, so that the autograder can identify your file and return the appropriate grade. The penalty is 25% of the total project points for not naming your file correctly, thereby requiring the TAs to manually rename your file. Submit this file using the Web-based Canvas system. This assignment is called Datalab. 8 Notes and Advice • This is an individual assignment. You may discuss general strategy for solving any puzzle, but you may not copy or even look at anyone else’s code, including solutions found online. In previous terms, several students were found to have identical code for a number of the puzzles, all copied from the same online source. 5 • Don’t include the header file in your bits.c file, as it confuses dlc and results in some non-intuitive error messages. You will still be able to use printf in your bits.c file for debugging without including the header, although gcc will print a warning that you can ignore. • The dlc program enforces a stricter form of C declarations than is the case for C++ or that is enforced by gcc. In particular, any declaration must appear in a block (what you enclose in curly braces) before any statement that is not a declaration. For example, it will complain about the following code: int foo(int x) { int a = x; a *= 3; /* Statement that is not a declaration */ int b = a; /* ERROR: Declaration not allowed here */ } 9 The “Beat the Prof” Contest For fun, we’re offering an optional “Beat the Prof” contest that allows you to compete with other students and the instructor to develop the most efficient puzzles. The goal is to solve each Data Lab puzzle using the fewest number of operators. Students who match or beat the instructor’s operator count for each puzzle are winners! To submit your entry to the contest, type: unix> ./ -u ‘‘Your Nickname’’ Nicknames are limited to 35 characters and can contain alphanumerics, apostrophes, commas, periods, dashes, underscores, and ampersands. You can submit as often as you like. Your most recent submission will appear on a real-time scoreboard, identified only by your nickname. You can view the scoreboard by pointing your browser at Submitting your solution to the “Beat the Prof” contest is not a substitute for submitting it to Canvas. That is, the contest server keeps track of scores by nickname, but it does not keep copies of bits.c files. The graders need the bits.c files (appropriately named) in order to award grades. Note: At this time, the “Beat the Prof” contest can be accessed from the Ubuntu virtual machines but not the CCC systems. (On the CCC systems, everything seems to work fine excpet for the ./driver./pl script, which gets compilation errors. 6