Homework 3: Plugboard Proxy solution

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Description

In this assignment you will develop a “plugboard” proxy for adding an extra
layer of protection to publicly accessible network services.

Consider for example the case of an SSH server with a public IP address. No
matter how securely the server has been configured and how strong keys are
used, it might suffer from a zero day vulnerability that allows remote code
execution even before the completion of the authentication process. This could
allow attackers to compromise the server even without having proper
authentication credentials. The Heartbleed OpenSSL bug is a recent example of
such a serious vulnerability against SSL/TLS.

The plugboard proxy you are going to develop, named ‘pbproxy’, adds an extra
layer of encryption to connections towards TCP services. Instead of connecting
directly to the service, clients connect to pbproxy (running on the same
server), which then relays all traffic to the actual service. Before relaying
the traffic, pbproxy *always* decrypts it using a static symmetric key. This
means that if the data of any connection towards the protected server is not
properly encrypted, then it will turn into garbage before reaching the
protected service.

Attackers who might want to exploit a zero day vulnerability in the protected
service will first have to know the secret key for having a chance to
successfully deliver their attack vector to the server. This of course assumes
that the plugboard proxy does not suffer from any vulnerability itself. Given
that its task and its code are much simpler compared to an actual service
(e.g., an SSH server), its code can be audited more easily and it can be more
confidently exposed as a publicly accessible service.

Clients who want to access the protected server should proxy their traffic
through a local instance of pbroxy, which will encrypt the traffic using the
same symmetric key used by the server. In essence, pbproxy can act both as
a client-side proxy and as server-side reverse proxy.

Your program should conform to the following specification:

pbproxy [-l port] -k keyfile destination port

-l Reverse-proxy mode: listen for inbound connections on and relay
them to :

-k Use the symmetric key contained in (as a hexadecimal string)

* The program should be written in C, use the OpenSSL library for all
cryptographic operations, and run on Linux
* Data should be encrypted/decrypted using AES in CTR mode (bi-directional
communication)
* In client mode, plaintext traffic should be read from stdin
* In server mode, pbrpoxy should keep listening for incoming connections after
a previous session is terminated (you are not required to implement support
for multiple concurrent connections, but you are welcome to do so)

Going back to the SSH example, let’s see how pbproxy can be used to harden an
SSH server. Assume that we want to protect a publicly accessible sshd running
on vuln.cs.stonybrook.edu. First, we configure sshd to listen *only* on the
localhost interface, making it inaccessible from the public network. Then, we
fire up a reverse pbproxy instance on the same host:

pbproxy -k mykey -l 2222 localhost 22

Clients can then connect to the SSH server using the following command:

ssh -o “ProxyCommand pbproxy -k mykey vuln.cs.stonybrook.edu 2222” localhost

This will result in a data flow similar to the following:

ssh <--stdin/stdout--> pbproxy-c <--socket 1--> pbproxy-s <--socket 2--> sshd
\______________________________/ \___________________________/
client server

To test your setup, you can achieve a similar data flow using netcat instead
of pbproxy, by first running it on the same server as sshd as follows:

nc -l -p 2222 -c ‘nc localhost 22’

Then connecting from the client machine as follows:

ssh -o “ProxyCommand nc vuln.cs.stonybrook.edu 2222” localhost

What to submit:

A tarball with all required source code files, an appropriate Makefile, and a
short report (.txt file is fine) with a brief description of your program.

Hints:

1) Some OpenSSL functions you might find useful: AES_set_encrypt_key,
AES_ctr128_encrypt (you can also use OpenSSL’s more flexible EVP interface,
which allows for more and stronger options, e.g., aes-256-ctr).

2) Mind your IVs!

3) For I/O multiplexing you can use either event-driven (e.g., select, poll,
epoll) or multithreaded (e.g., pthread) programming.